By Zeynep Yürekli
According to a radical exam of constructions, inscriptions, archival records and hagiographies, this booklet uncovers the political value of Bektashi shrines within the Ottoman imperial age. It therefore offers a clean and complete account of the formative means of the Bektashi order, which began as a community of social teams that took factor with Ottoman imperial regulations within the overdue 15th century, was once recommended imperially as a part of Bayezid II's (r. 1481-1512) delicate energy coverage, and saved below money through imperial professionals because the Ottoman method of the Safavid clash hardened throughout the remainder of the 16th century. This booklet demonstrates that it was once a mix of 2 collective actions that validated the first parameters of Bektashi tradition from the overdue 15th century onwards. One was once the writing of Bektashi hagiographies; they associated hitherto exact social teams (such as wandering dervishes and warriors) with one another throughout the lives of old figures who have been their id markers (such because the saint Hac Bektas and the martyr Seyyid Gazi), whereas incorporating them into Ottoman heritage in artistic methods. the opposite one used to be the architectural remodelling of the saints' shrines. by way of type, imagery and content material, this interrelated literary and architectural output unearths a classy strategy of negotiation with the imperial order and its cultural paradigms. tested in additional aspect within the publication are the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hac Bektas and linked legends and hagiographies. even though proven as self sufficient associations in medieval Anatolia, they have been joined within the rising Bektashi community less than the Ottomans, grew to become its significant centres and underwent radical architectural transformation, generally lower than the patronage of raider commanders established within the Balkans. They hence got here to occupy an middleman socio-political quarter among the Ottoman empire and its contestants within the 16th century.
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Additional info for Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age
51 Necipoğlu, Age of Sinan, p. 63; Nişancı Mehmed Pasha, Tārīḫ-i Nişāncı (Istanbul, 1290/1873), pp. 299–300; Karaçelebizade ʿAbdü’l-ʿAziz, Süleymānnāme (Cairo, 1248/1832), p. 197. 52 Necipoğlu, Age of Sinan, pp. 63–4; İbrahim Hakkı Konyalı, Abideleri ve Kitabeleri ile Konya Tarihi (Konya, 1964), pp. 528–35, 646–50. 53 Ottoman sultans and grandees visited the shrine, which was conveniently located on one of the main routes from Istanbul to the eastern parts of the empire, during military campaigns.
The terminology is adopted from the readerresponse theory of Stanley E. Fish; Stanley E. Fish, ‘Interpreting the Variorum’, Critical Inquiry 2 (1976): pp. 465–85; Stanley E. : The Authority of Interpretive Communities (Cambridge, MA and London, 1980). 79 Godfrey Goodwin, A History of Ottoman Architecture (London, 1971), pp. 181–3. This page has been left blank intentionally 1 The Bektashis, their Shrines and the Ottomans Before we turn to look at ‘architecture and hagiography’ as the title of this book promises, I must delineate the historical framework within which I want to show the buildings and texts.
In order to facilitate an understanding of the formation of the social network around the shrines, close attention is paid to the portrayal of Seyyid Gazi, Hacı Bektaş and their shrines. Accounts of interaction between Bektashi saints and the Ottomans are treated in the context of contemporary dynastic historiography and politics. The next two chapters focus on the built environment. Chapter 3 delineates the architectural transformation of both shrines in the imperial age and examines the possible motives of architectural patrons, while Chapter 4 focuses on the socially and historically defined meaning of the architecture.
Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age by Zeynep Yürekli