This wide-ranging presentation of utilized superconductivity, from basics and fabrics correct as much as the main points of many functions, is a necessary reference for physicists and engineers in educational learn in addition to in industry.
Readers searching for a complete evaluation on easy results concerning superconductivity and superconducting fabrics will extend their wisdom and realizing of either high and low Tc superconductors with recognize to their program. know-how, guidance and characterization are coated for bulk, unmarried crystals, thins fi lms in addition to digital units, wires and tapes.
The major advantage of this paintings lies in its wide assurance of important functions in magnets, strength engineering, electronics, sensors and quantum metrology. The reader will locate details on superconducting magnets for various functions like particle physics, fusion examine, drugs, and biomagnetism in addition to fabrics processing. SQUIDs and their utilization in drugs or geophysics are
thoroughly lined, as are superconducting radiation and particle detectors, points on superconductor electronic electronics, top readers to quantum computing and new units.
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Additional info for Applied Superconductivity: Handbook on Devices and Applications
Now shielding currents ﬂow within the superconductor and concentrate the magnetic ﬁeld lines, such that a system of ﬂux lines, also referred to as Abrikosov vortices, is generated. In an ideal homogeneous superconductor, in general, these vortices arrange themselves in form of a triangular lattice. 5, we show schematically this structure of the Shubnikov phase. The superconductor is penetrated by magnetic ﬂux lines, each of which carries a magnetic ﬂux quantum and is located at the corners of equilateral triangles.
2 1 Fundamentals the resistance would approach zero value at very low temperatures, was suggested by the strong decrease with decreasing temperature. Initially, Kamerlingh-Onnes studied platinum and gold samples, since at that time he could obtain these metals already with high purity. He found that during the approach of zero temperature the electric resistance of his samples reached a ﬁnite limiting value, the so-called residual resistance, a behavior corresponding to the second possibility discussed above.
The initial experiments carried out by Kamerlingh-Onnes together with his coworkers, Gerrit Flim, Gilles Holst, and Gerrit Dorsman, appeared to conﬁrm these concepts. 2 K, the resistance of mercury, indeed, became immeasurably small. During his further experiments, he soon recognized that the observed eﬀect could not be identical to the expected decrease of resistance. The resistance change took place within a temperature interval of only a few hundredths of a degree and, hence, it resembled more a resistance jump than a continuous decrease.
Applied Superconductivity: Handbook on Devices and Applications