Pentti O. Kettunen's Advances in Materials Science of Wood PDF

By Pentti O. Kettunen

ISBN-10: 0878493549

ISBN-13: 9780878493548

ISBN-10: 3038132608

ISBN-13: 9783038132608

ISBN-10: 3908453089

ISBN-13: 9783908453086

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Extra resources for Advances in Materials Science of Wood

Sample text

Ultimate compression strength of wood as a function of wood density /1,3/. Courtesy of Professor Ashby. Pentti O. Kettunen The influence of the orientation of loading on the strength of wood depends also on the method by which the strength is measured. As Fig. 41 illustrates, the influence is of a similar type in tension, compression and bending, but some differences exist between the methods. Fig. 41. Relative values of monotonic strength as a function of the deviation angle of the loading direction from the axial direction of the cell structure as measured under tension, compression and bending /1,4/.

Consequently, when deformation is kept constant, the stress needed for keeping it decreases as a function of time. During a loading with constant stress rate, deformation is created more than what could be expected on the basis of a direct proportionality, and during a straining with constant strain rate, stress is needed less than that needed in the case of direct proportionality. Normally in polymers, the anelastic portion of strain is much larger than the elastic one. Thus, when some amount of elastic strain is created by the applied stress and the stress then is dropped to zero, only a minor portion of the strain is reversed according to the stress reversal, the major portion of strain will be reversed with decreasing speed as a function of time.

Fig. 32 illustrates this schematically in the case of increasing temperature. D. Effect of the deviation of the loading direction from the axial direction When the external loading direction deviates from the axial direction, the deviation angle has an influence on the mechanism, by which the unidirectionally fiber reinforced composite deforms and finally cracks when reaching its fracture strength. As illustrated in Fig. 33, the final fracture, which is based on the fracture of fibers and proceeds therefore more or less perpendicularly to the fibers, takes place only at loading orientations very close to the axial direction ( 4o).

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Advances in Materials Science of Wood by Pentti O. Kettunen

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