Read e-book online Advanced Organic Chemistry PDF

By Valerie Coulter

ISBN-10: 938016887X

ISBN-13: 9789380168876

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Fig. sp-Hybridisation of carbon. Electronic Configuration In a carbon atom the first two electrons fit into each sp orbital according to Hund’s rule such that each orbital has a single 48 Organic Chemistry unpaired electron. This leaves two electrons that can be paired up in the half-filled sp orbitals or placed in the vacant 2py and 2pz orbitals. The energy difference between the orbitals is small and so it is easier for the electrons to fit into the higher energy orbitals than to pair up. ), and so four bonds are possible.

If an activating substituent is present that is capable of interacting with the ring by resonance, the opposite holds true and the para isomer will be a stronger base than the meta isomer. This is because the crucial resonance structure mentioned above would have a negative charge immediately next to the ammonium ion and this would have a stabilising effect. Fig. Resonance structures for para-nitroaniline and meta-nitroaniline. ). Because of this the amines react with acids to form water soluble salts.

Each sp3 orbital occupies a space as far apart from each other as possible by pointing to the concerns of tetrahedron. 5°. This is what is meant by the expression tetrahedral carbon. The three-dimensional shape of the tetrahedral carbon can be represented by drawing a normal line for bonds in the plane of the page. Bonds going behind the page are represented by hatched wedge, and bonds coming out the page are represented by a solid wedge: Fig. Tetrahedral shape of an sp3 hybridised carbon. Sigma Bonds A half-filled sp3 hybridised orbital from one carbon atom can be used to form a bond with a half-filled sp3 hybridised orbital from another carbon atom.

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Advanced Organic Chemistry by Valerie Coulter


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