By Donald Ringe
This booklet is the 1st on account that 1897 to explain the earliest reconstructable phases of the prehistory of English. It outlines the grammar of Proto-Indo-European, considers the alterations in which one dialect of that prehistoric language constructed into Proto-Germanic, and offers a close account of the grammar of Proto-Germanic. the 1st quantity in Don Ringe's A Linguistic heritage of English might be of vital curiosity to all students and scholars of comparative Indo-European and Germanic linguistics, the heritage of English, and old linguists. the subsequent quantity will think of the advance of Proto-Germanic into outdated English. next volumes will describe the attested background of English from the outdated English interval to the current.
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Additional info for A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English)
Ja¯na¯´ti, Toch. A 2sg. kna¯nat) and aorist ˚ ˚ øíÆØ /gnoˆ˛ :nai/, Skt precative 3sg. jn˜eya´¯ s) and *g´ne´h3- $ *g´nh3- (Gk ªí~ ˚ ´ *g´ne¯h3-s- $ *g´ne´h3-s- (Hitt. pres. ganeszi, Toch. A pret. 2sg. kn˜asa¨st). If the ˙ system of aspect stems was originally derivational, it is most unlikely to have Proto-Indo-European 35 exhibited a neat complementary distribution of forms in its earliest stages. But it does appear that by the Proto-West IE stage it had settled out into more or less the shape hypothesized by Cowgill.
Lelo´ykwe w w — lelikwe´ lele´yk owos lelik ih1we´ lelikwih1to´m ??? lele´ykwetes lelikwih1ta¯´m ??? lele´ykwetes w w lele´yk omos lelikwih1me´ — lelik me´ w w w ´ ´ ´ leleyk ete lelik ih1te ??? lelik e lele´ykwonti lelikwih1e´nd ??? lelikwe¯´r participle lelikwo¯´s, lelikuse´s; lelikwo´sih2, lelikusye´h2s . dheh1- ‘put’ (reduplicated athematic present, root aorist) present stem, active: 1ary indic. 2ary indic. ) ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ present stem, mediopassive: 1ary indic. 2ary indic. subjunctive optative dhe´dhh1h2ey dhe´dhh1h2e dhe´dheh1oh2ey dhe´dhh1ih1h2e h h h h h h d e´d h1th2e d e´d eh1eth2ey dhe´dhh1ih1th2e d e´d h1th2ey dhe´dhh1to dhe´dheh1etoy dhe´dhh1ih1to dhe´dhh1toy h h h h h h h h h d e´d h1uosd h2 d e´d h1ued h2 d e´d eh1owosd h2 dhe´dhh1ih1wedhh2 ???
Bhe´redhh2ue ??? /-o-mh1no-s/) . g em- ‘step’ (sk´ e´-present, root aorist, reduplicated perfect; active only) w present stem: 1ary indic. gwmsk´ o´h2 ˚ gwmsk´ e´si w˚ ´ g msk e´ti ˚ gwmsk´ o´wos ˚ 2ary indic. gwmsk´ o´m ˚ gwmsk´ e´s w˚ ´ g msk e´d ˚ gwmsk´ o´we ˚ subjunctive gwmsk´ o¯´h2 ˚ gwmsk´ e¯´si w ˚ ´´ g msk e¯ti ˚ gwmsk´ o¯´wos ˚ optative gwmsk´ o´yh1m ˚ ˚ gwmsk´ o´ys w˚ ´ g msk o´yd ˚ gwmsk´ o´ywe ˚ imperative — gwmsk´ e´ ˚ gwmsk´ e´tu ˚ — 40 Proto-Indo-European gwmsk´ e´tes gwmsk´ e´tom gwmsk´ e¯´tes gwmsk´ o´ytom gwmsk´ e´tom ˚ w˚ ´ w˚ ´ w ˚ ´´ w˚ ´ g msk e´ta¯m g msk e¯tes g msk o´yta¯m gwmsk´ e´ta¯m g msk e´tes ˚ w˚ ´ w˚ ´ w˚ ´´ w˚ ´ — g msk o´mos g msk o´me g msk o¯mos g msk o´yme w˚ ´ w˚ ´ w ˚ ´´ w˚ ´ w g msk e´te g msk e¯te g msk o´yte g msk´ e´te g msk e´te ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ gwmsk´ o´nd gwmsk´ o¯´nti gwmsk´ o´yh1end gwmsk´ o´ntu gwmsk´ o´nti ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ participle gwmsk´ o´nts, gwmsk´ o´ntos; gwmsk´ o´ntih2, gwmsk´ o´ntieh2s ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ aorist stem: 2ary indic.
A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English) by Donald Ringe