By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu
On the flip of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire straddled 3 continents and encompassed awesome ethnic and cultural range one of the anticipated thirty million humans dwelling inside of its borders. It used to be possibly the main cosmopolitan nation within the world--and most likely the main risky. a short background of the past due Ottoman Empire now supplies students and normal readers a concise historical past of the overdue empire among 1789 and 1918, turbulent years marked by way of brilliant social switch. relocating previous typical remedies of the topic, M. Skr Hanioglu emphasizes vast historic developments and strategies greater than unmarried occasions. He examines the imperial fight to centralize amid strong competition from neighborhood rulers, nationalist and different teams, and overseas powers. He appears to be like heavily on the socioeconomic adjustments this fight wrought and addresses the Ottoman reaction to the demanding situations of modernity. Hanioglu indicates how this historical past is not just necessary to comprehending sleek Turkey, yet is vital to the histories of Europe and the realm. He brings Ottoman society marvelously to existence in all its facets--cultural, diplomatic, highbrow, literary, army, and political--and he mines imperial files and different records from the interval to explain it because it really was once, no longer because it has been portrayed in postimperial nationalist narratives. a quick background of the overdue Ottoman Empire is a must-read for someone trying to comprehend the legacy left during this empire's ruins--a legacy the area nonetheless grapples with this day.
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Additional resources for A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire
Sleeping arrangements consisted of simple cotton mattresses; these were folded for storage during the day to save space. Coffers and basket boxes served dual purposes as seats and storage containers for garments. Meals were eaten sitting on the floor and required little more than a piece of cloth (or a tray in some upper-class houses) on which to place the pot. With the exception of the upper classes, people ate their meals from the same pot using spoons; dishes were rarely used, obviating the need for cupboards.
63 All of the inventories for the year Hicrî 1164 (1750–51) were given in akçes. The inventories for the year Hicrî 1215 (1800–1801) were given either in akçes or in gurushes and paras. S. dollars by using the ratios provided in Pamuk, İstanbul ve Diğer Kentlerde 500 Yıllık Fiyatlar ve Ücretler, pp. S. S. S. dollars in 1800–1801. indd 29 8/23/2007 8:16:00 PM 30 Chapter One scheduled for distribution to heirs, which the executor (askerî kassam) determined after subtracting funeral expenses (women’s funeral expenses were paid by their husbands), outstanding debt, execution fees, and transaction dues.
This did little to halt the steady decline in state revenues. In 1695, in an effort to improve efficiency and increase revenue, the state launched a major change in the method of tax collection. Instead of allocating the collection of public revenues (including various taxes, stamp duties, and customs revenues) to members of the ruling class for life, the state began to sell these rights to revenue farmers, usually gentry and urban notables, at public auctions. 42 As a result of this new practice, called malikâne, between 1698 and 1774 the number of tax revenue farms administered through the chief accounting office increased by 209 percent and their revenues rose by 88 percent.
A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire by M. Şükrü Hanioğlu